Issue 22, January 2003

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Articles of interest to the ENSO community
(See previous editions of the ENSO Signal for others.)

Current State of the Topical Pacific
1969 All Over Again?
New El Niño Research Center in Ecuador - CIIFEN
United Nations Atlas of the Oceans
Laboratory for Atmospheric Research
El Niño Dumps Snow on Antarctica
Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS)

Articles of interest to the network
(See previous editions of the Newsletter for others.)

Programs for Recent PhDs
World Summit on the Information Society
Native Nations Institute
World Food Summit: Five Years Later
Ecosystem Informatics
World Resources 2002-2004
Canada: 100th Country to Ratify Kyoto Protocol

Climate Affairs: A Primer
Tidal Energy: Renewable Resource?
Perennial Sea Ice Disappearing?
UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize

ISAR Caspian Program
Rolling Stones "Turn Up the Heat"
Information Society Integrated Systems (ISIS)
US Delegation to Cuban Convention
Australia's Worst Drought
Vision of Global Observing System
Land-Cover Change: Factor in Climate
Multi-Hazard Mapping Initiative
Go Data Shopping!
In Memoriam - F. Kenneth Hare, 1919-2002

Thank You For Your Input!

Please send news items, publications, Web sites, and articles of interest to our readers to the address below by 31 March 2003. This newsletter values input from its readers, which has now reached over 2,000. If you are interested in receiving the newsletter only on line, please subscribe there. You will be notified electronically when a new issue is released. Feedback is encouraged!

Current State of the Tropical Pacific
(
From the Climate Prediction Center's Climate Diagnostics Bulletin)
www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov

El Niño conditions dominated the tropical Pacific during December 2002. Equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies were greater than +1°C throughout most of the Pacific between the date line and the South American coast, and exceeded +2°C at several locations. Collectively, oceanic and atmospheric indices are indicative of a moderate El Niño episode. Most coupled model and statistical model forecasts indicate that El Niño conditions will continue through the northern spring of 2003. Thereafter the forecasts are more uncertain, during a time when all current techniques have difficulty in making skillful forecasts. Expected global impacts of the current event include: (1) drier than average over most of Indonesia, Micronesia, and northern/northeastern Australia continuing during the next three months; (2) drier than average over southeastern Africa through March; (3) drier than average over Northeast Brazil and northern South America through April; (4) see the map below for expected impacts over the United States for January-March 2003.

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1969 All Over Again?

Intellicast LogoJoe D'Aleo, chief meteorologist at Intellicast.com, maintains a column of "Dr. Dewpoint" articles. He speculates that this year's atmospheric, oceanic, and solar conditions are most similar to those in 1969-70 and 1957-58. Both of those winters turned out colder than normal in much of the east and south of the United States. In addition, there were three "blockbuster" East Coast storms in those two winters that affected major cities. D'Aleo cites the following similar conditions: ongoing El Niño event, the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) in its cool phase; westerly QBO (Quasi-Biennial Oscillation); and moderately high solar activity. By the time the next newsletter is issued, it will be clear whether or not Dr. Dewpoint was correct. Please visit www.intellicast.com/DrDewpoint for the full articles.

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New El Niño Research Center in Ecuador - CIIFEN

The International Research Center on the El Niño Phenomenon (CIIFEN) was inaugurated in mid-January 2003 in Guayaquil, Ecuador, as a result of a long process of cooperative efforts between the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Government of Ecuador, under the framework of the United Nation's ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction). The ISDR contributed significantly by facilitating the regional consultations and contributed to the coordination of activities at the international level. The WMO, ISDR, and the Government of Ecuador are part of the Planning Committee for CIIFEN. Dr. José Luis Santos, Director of the Research Center for Science and Technology in Guayaquil, will act as the interim director. The aim of CIIFEN is to establish a bridge between the scientific, socioeconomic, and political communities concerned with El Niño-related events. For more information, please contact Dr. Kenneth Davidson, Director, World Climate Programme, WMO, 7 bis, avenue de la Paix, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; email davidson_k@gateway.wmo.ch or contact the ISDR representative, Pedro Basabe, at basabe@un.org

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United Nations Atlas of the Oceans

UN Oceans LogoThe UN Atlas of the Oceans, developed by UN agencies and their partners, is a sophisticated Internet portal containing a wealth of information relevant to the sustainable development of oceans. Detailed information on oceans is available for policymakers, resource managers, industry workers, nongovernmental organizations, the media, scientists, and students. The Atlas has four main entry points: (1) About the Oceans; (2) Uses; (3) Issues; and (4) Geography. Development of the Atlas, a joint project of the UN agencies responsible for matters relating to ocean issues, is an initiative of the UN Subcommittee on Oceans and Coastal Areas and is funded by the UN Foundation (Washington, DC). Detailed information is available at www.oceansatlas.org

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Laboratory for Atmospheric Research

City University of Hong Kong LogoThe Department of Physics and Materials Science at the City University of Hong Kong formed the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research to consolidate research efforts related to the earth's atmosphere. Research is currently focused in three main areas: (1) meteorology and climate; (2) atmospheric remote sensing and measurements; and (3) computational environmental modeling. Prof. Johnny Chan maintains a website of seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific. According to Chan, this is the third consecutive year in which the forecasts were nearly perfect. The 2002 El Niño event apparently controlled most of the variability of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during the year. Forecasts for 2003 will be issued in April and updated in June. For more information, see the website at aposf02.cityu.edu.hk/~mcg/ and click on "Seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclone activity." Email Chan at Johnny.Chan@cityu.edu.hk

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El Niño Dumps Snow on Antarctica

The Poles BannerThe International Trans-Antarctic Science Expedition (ITASE) of 2003-03 crossed Antarctica to the South Pole in the first overland sled trek in 45 years. The team of 13 scientists reached the South Pole on 2 January 2003. The goal of the expedition and the whole ITASE program is to change Antarctica from being the most poorly understood continent when it comes to climate and bring it up to date. The expedition encountered heavy storms and were forced to halt for some time. They made a first attempt in early November, but were forced to turn back by deep snow. In January, they used wider tractor treads and sled runners. The moderate El Niño event under way is being blamed for the unusually heavy snowfall encountered by the expedition. For more information about the expedition, see www.thepoles.com

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Coral Reef Information System (CoRIS)

CoRIS logoNOAA has announced the release of the CoRIS, a website which serves as a single point of access for online data and information on coral reefs. The site was developed by NOAA's Ocean Service and the National Oceanographic Data Center to serve data and information derived from NOAA programs and projects. Before CoRIS, users faced an array of more than fifty NOAA coral reef websites. Visit the website at coris.noaa.gov or the National Ocean Service at www.nos.noaa.gov

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Programs for Recent PhDs

DISCCRS (Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research) is a new program to bring together recent PhDs across the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and social sciences who are interested in climate change. The first DISCCRS symposium will be held in March 2003. Contingent on continued funding, the DISCCRS II symposium will be open to PhDs completing degrees after 1 October 2002, and whose work in any discipline is relevant to the understanding of climate change and its impacts. Individuals from all nations are eligible for consideration. A committee will select participants based on applications submitted. Selection will favor those who plan to establish careers in the area of climate change research and who wish to transcend traditional disciplinary boundaries. Graduates are encouraged to register as soon as they complete their last graduation requirements. Information is on the website at aslo.org/phd.html or direction questions to C. Susan Weiler, disccrs@whitman.edu; tel: 1-509-527-5948.

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World Summit on the Information Society

World Summit on the Information Society LogoThe UN System Chief Executive Board and the International Telecommunication Union have decided to hold a Summit in two phases, with the first phase in December 2003 in Geneva, Switzerland, and the second in 2005 in Tunis, Tunisia. The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) will provide a unique opportunity to assemble a high-level gathering to better understand the global information society, which is evolving quickly, to allow examination of the myriad changes in knowledge dissemination, social interaction, economic and business practices, political processes, media, education, and health. To benefit the world community, the successful and continued growth of this new dynamic requires global discussion and harmonization in appropriate areas. The Summit in Geneva will be the outcome of a wide variety of inputs, including previous meetings, Action Plans, and inputs from the Preparatory Committees of the Summit (PrepComs). The PrepComs will be attended by government representatives, as well as other concerned parties. To learn more about the WSIS, dates of PrepComs, and the preparatory process, contact the WSIS Executive Secretariat, World Summit on the Information Society, International Telecommunication Union, Place des Nations, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland; web: www.itu.int/wsis/

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Native Nations Insitute

Native Nations Insitute LogoThe Udall Center's Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy (NNI) serves as a self-determination, development, and self-governance resource to indigenous nations in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere. NNI's operations depend on frequent consultation with its International Advisory Council, which is made up of Native leaders and professionals. NNI provides Native nations with comprehensive, professional training and development programs designed to meet the educational needs of indigenous leadership and management. NNI has partnered with other Native organizations to evaluate the Comprehensive Indian Resources for Community and Law Enforcement (CIRCLE) Program, a demonstration project designed to explore the benefits of more integrated federal funding for tribal justice programs and of more comprehensive and strategic program planning at the tribal level. Funding comes through the National Institute of Justice's Department of Justice. The evaluation is expected to begin in early 2003. For more information on this project, contact NNI's research director, Miriam Jorgensen at Miriam_Jorgensen@harvard.edu or see NNI's website at udallcenter.arizona.edu/nativenations/nni_programs.htm

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World Food Summit: Five Years Later

World Food Summit LogoThe Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reaffirmed a pledge, made five years ago at the World Food Summit in 1996, to address worldwide hunger and food security at a follow-up Summit, which was held in June 2002. It also unanimously adopted a declaration calling on the international community to fulfill an earlier pledge to cut the number of hungry people to less than 400 million by 2015. The FAO is one of the largest specialized agencies in the United Nations system, and is the lead agency for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and rural development. Food production has increased at an unprecedented rate since FAO was founded in 1945, outpacing the doubling of the world's population over the same period. A specific priority of FAO is encouraging sustainable agriculture and rural development. The FAO website contains more than a dozen statistical databases and a huge "virtual library" on line. For more information about the Summit or the library, please see www.fao.org or email FAO-HQ@fao.org or write to FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

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Ecosystem Informatics

The field of "informatics" involves the design of information systems with respect to complex explanatory and management needs, the preparation of metadata for locating and assessing available information, development of new kinds of data products, and ecological modeling. NOAA's Satellite and Information Services and the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), with the University of Colorado's Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES), are developing a program of research and application in Ecosystem Informatics. It is increasingly clear that natural processes, human activity, and environmental change all affect ecosystems in ways sometimes difficult to predict. Innovative information technologies and advanced methodologies are required to meet this challenge. A website has been created by NGDC with a Global Ecosystems Database, which is available on line and on CD-ROM, as well as a Global Vegetation Index. For more information about content, contact Meghana Joshi at meghana.joshi@ noaa.gov or for information regarding Global Ecosystems, contact John Kineman at john.j.kineman@noaa.gov or visit the website at www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/eco/ecosys.shtml

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World Resources 2002-2004

This is the tenth biennial World Resources book in the series on the global environment. It defines environmental governance in everyday terms, with reference to case studies. It assesses the state of environmental governance in nations around the world and summarizes results from the Access Initiative, the first-ever attempt to systematically measure government performance in providing access to environmental information, decision-making, and justice. The report also presents national statistics on current environmental, social, and economic trends in more than 150 countries. It also differs from earlier editions in the series by making the full World Resources database freely accessible and searchable online in the companion website, EarthTrends (earthtrends.wri.org). The World Resources series is produced through a collaboration of the UN Development Programme, the UN Environment Programme, the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute. The guidebook was prepared for the World Summit and highlights issues that will be developed more fully in the main volume of the report, due in February 2003. For ordering information, please visit www.wristore.com for World Resources 2002-2004: Decisions for the Earth: Balance, Voice, and Power.

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Canada: 100th Country to Ratify Kyoto Protocol

Formal ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the Canadian Parliament is a major boost for the 1997 treaty that commits participating countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2012. Canada's implementation plan calls for changes throughout society on energy use and the use of more fuel-efficient cars. To take effect, the Kyoto Protocol must be ratified by at least 55 countries, including those responsible for 55 percent of the world's emissions in 1990. Canada's ratification brings the Protocol's total membership to 100. The rejection of the treaty by the United States means that every other industrial country must agree to the threshold. Russia has indicated that it will ratify the treaty, which would bring the treaty into effect. Canada will attempt to obtain its reductions by using the three Kyoto Mechanisms, which are (1) The Clean Development Mechanism, a way to earn credits by investing in emission reduction projects in developing countries; (2) Joint Implementation, a way to earn credits by investing in emission reduction projects in developed countries that have taken on a Kyoto target; and (3) International Emissions Trading, which permits developed countries that have taken on a Kyoto target to buy and sell emission credits among themselves. For more information on the Kyoto Protocol, see the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change website at unfccc.int/resource/convkp.html

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Climate Affairs: A Primer

Climate Affairs Primer Book CoverMichael Glantz has completed a "primer" to address questions surrounding the impacts of climate variability, climate change, and extreme climate-related events. It outlines a way to address the interactions among climate, society, and the environment. The book considers the full range of climate-related topics, including climate science, impacts, policy and law, politics, economics, and ethics. It can be a key resource for decision makers, as well as for students and scholars working in climate and related fields. The book is scheduled for publication in Spring 2003 by Island Press. For more information about the book, please contact Michael Glantz at glantz@ucar.edu, or order the book online at www.islandpress.org

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Tidal Energy: Renewable Resources?

Waves, currents, and tides have often proved too costly or difficult to harness, when compared to wind or solar power in efforts to cut national reliance on fossil fuels or when compared to nuclear power. However, the world's most northerly town, Hammerfest, Norway, will soon be the first to get electricity from a sub-sea power station run on tidal currents. Tidal power exploits the gravitational pull of the moon and sun, as well as the earth's revolution. The turbine will power approximately 1,000 homes by its completion in 2004. Tidal power has the potential to generate significant amounts of electricity at certain sites around the world. Although tidal power cannot supply the majority of electricity needs, it can be a valuable source of renewable energy, since the negative environmental impacts of tidal barrages are probably smaller than those of other sources of electricity. At this time, these factors are not well understood. For more information about tidal energy, see the Energy Fact Sheet at www.iclei.org/efacts/tidal.htm

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Perennial Sea Ice Disappearing?

A study by J.C. Comiso (NASA/Goddard) appeared in the October issue of Geophysical Research Letters that shows a significant decrease of perennial sea ice (the floating ice that remains year-round near the Arctic Circle). Comiso used satellite data to track trends in Arctic sea ice cover and temperature over the Arctic from 1978 to 2000. Prior to the data provided by satellites, most records came from ocean buoys, weather stations, and research vessels. Comiso compiled all available data to obtain overall annual values of perennial sea ice. He concludes that if current melting rates continue, there may be no sea ice left in the Arctic by 2099. The rate of decline is expected to accelerate due to ocean-atmosphere interactions. Comiso recently analyzed the ice cover data up to the present and discovered that this year's perennial ice cover is the least extensive observed during the era of satellite data. For more information, please see the paper (below). The paper was cited as an "Editor's Choice" in the 15 November issue of Science. Contact Comiso at josefino.c.comiso@nasa.gov

Comiso, J.C., 2002: A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters 29(20), 1956, doi: 10.1029/ 2002GL015650.

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UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize

In November, Dr. Ashok Khosla won the 2002 UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize. Khosla has worked tirelessly to demonstrate both the theory and practice of sustainable development through his teaching and fostering of environment-friendly and commercially viable technologies. Much of his recent work has been achieved through Development Alternatives, a nonprofit organization in New Delhi, India, which he founded in 1983 to help bring people and nature directly into the design and implementation of India's development strategies. The objective of Development Alternatives is to "disseminate the means to create sustainable livelihoods on a large scale, and thus to mobilize widespread action to eradicate poverty and regenerate the environment" (from the website). For more information on Development Alternatives, see the website at www.devalt.org. To nominate a candidate for the 2003 Sasakawa Prize (due April 2003), see the website at www.unep.org or write to Elisabeth Guilbaud-Cox, UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize, UNEP, Division of Communications and Public Information, PO Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya; email Elisabeth.guilbaud-cox@unep.org

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ISAR's Caspian Program Becomes Its Own Entity

ISAR LogoISAR (Initiative for Social Action and Renewal in Eurasia) is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to strengthen the ability of citizens and social change organizations in Eurasia and their colleagues in the United States to influence decision-making, advance social justice, and promote environmentally sound stewardship of the earth's resources. ISAR's Caspian Program has decided to become a separate and independent organization in order to concentrate on advocacy-based efforts to protect the environment of the Caspian basin, a more specific and focused goal than that of the other parts of the ISAR network. ISAR supports this view. Those who will launch the new organization include Kate Watters, Michelle Kinman, and Megan Lee in ISAR's Washington office; Alexey Knizhnikov in the Moscow office; Enver Safar-zade in the Baku office, and Timur Berkeliev in Turkmenistan. ISAR considers the new Caspian organization an exciting and positive outgrowth of ISAR's work over the last decade. For more information, contact Kate Watters, Deputy Director, ISAR, at kwatters@isar.org or write to ISAR, 1600 Connecticut Ave. #301, Washington, DC 20009; web www.isar.org

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Rolling Stones "Turn Up the Heat"

Rolling Stones LipsThe Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Rolling Stones are staging a free concert to "Turn Up the Heat on Global Warming." This special concert is intended to raise public awareness about global warming and will be held February 6, 2003 in Los Angeles, California. NRDC president John H. Adams said "the Rolling Stones' commitment will help build unprecedented support for NRDC's efforts to fight global warming. The Rolling Stones deserve a standing ovation for putting the environment on center stage." Visit rollingstones.nrdc.org/globalwarming/ for information on the concert and to find out what you can do.

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Information Society Integrated Systems (ISIS)

IPRC LogoISIS is a new project being led by the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) Director Lorenz Magaard. Realizing the significance of developing models that consider interactions between societal parameters and climate change, he met with Wolf Grossmann (UFZ Center for Environmental Research in Germany) to investigate Grossmann's ISIS model, which describes interactions between such societal elements as economy, environment, human knowledge, and human attitude. ISIS provides an analysis of past economic developments and transitions. It differs from other concepts of the society-climate interaction, in that society is not passively responding to climate and climate change, but is in the driver's seat. Environmental change is relevant as a constraint within which certain social and economic developments may emerge. For more information, contact the IPRC, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu, Hawaii 96822; tel: 808-956-5019; email speidel@soest.hawaii.edu (from IPRC Climate, web: iprc.soest.hawaii.edu).

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US Delegation to Cuban Convention

Global Exchange LogoGlobal Exchange and its partners are organizing a 200-person delegation of US environmentalists and development specialists to participate in Cuba's Fourth International Convention on Environment and Development, to be held in Havana, Cuba, in June 2003. Global Exchange is a human rights organization dedicated to promoting environmental, political, and social justice around the world. Since its founding in 1988, they have been striving to increase global awareness among the US public while building international partnerships around the world. For more information, see www.globalexchange.org or write to Global Exchange, 2017 Mission St. #303, San Francisco, CA 9410; tel: 1-415-255-7296; email info@globalexchange.org. More information on the Convention is available at www.globalexchange.org/tours/auto/2003-05-30_thInternationalConventiononEn.html

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Australia's Worst Drought

A report just released by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Climate Change Programme implicates global warming in the severity of the 2002 drought in Australia. The report, Global Warming Contributes to Australia's Worst Drought, compares the 2002 drought with the four other major droughts in the country since 1950 and has found higher temperatures caused a marked increase in evaporation rates from soil, watercourses, and vegetation. The report states that in 2002, Australia recorded its highest-ever average March-November daytime maximum temperature. One of the authors stated that although the 2002 drought was related to natural climate variations associated with El Niño, the higher temperatures cannot be attributed solely to this factor. The report contains new data on evaporation rates and shows that low rainfall and higher evaporation has adversely impacted agricultural productivity. The report is available on line at www.wwf.org.au. Print quality graphs can be accessed at www.maths.monash.edu.au/~ris/drought.shtml

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Vision of Global Observing System

At the World Space Congress 2002, held in Houston, Texas in October, NOAA's administrator Conrad Lautenbacher unveiled a new vision of an integrated global observing system. This vision includes five integral parts: (1) efficient corporate organization; (2) technology; (3) transitioning research into operations; (4) partnerships; and (5) outreach and training. The goal of the new system is to couple advanced technology with local communities to improve weather and climate forecasts, ecosystem management, and reduce disaster losses from extreme climate events. For the full proceedings of the World Space Congress, see www.aiaa.org/wsc2002/ or for more information about the observing system, see www.nesdis.noaa.gov

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Land-cover Change: Factor in Climate

A new NASA-funded study shows that land surface changes may have a greater impact on climate than the combined effects of greenhouse gases. Land surface changes, including urban sprawl, deforestation, reforestation, and agricultural and irrigation practices redistribute heat and alter regional surface temperatures, precipitation, and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Roger Pielke Sr., lead author of the study, notes that land-cover changes over the last 300 years may have already altered the climate more than the radiative effects of doubling carbon dioxide. Land-use changes in the tropics could dwarf the effects of El Niño, since most cumulus cloud development occurs over land, and the area affected is much greater than the comparable ocean area affected by El Niño. The paper was published in a recent issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. The paper is available on line at Dr. Pielke's website at blue.atmos.colostate.edu/newsreleases/index.shtml

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Multi-hazard Mapping Initiative

A website designed to give the public access to nationwide coverage of multi-hazard maps and supporting data is now available. The Multi-Hazard Mapping Initiative (MMI) is an initiative of FEMA (US Federal Emergency Management Agency). MMI will maintain a "living atlas" of hazards data and map services for the United States supplied from a network of hazard and base map providers. The maps are available on the Internet at www.hazardmaps.gov and can be viewed by typical web browsers. The user can view maps by hazard theme or create a custom view showing areas of hazard overlap. State or local government technicians can also download Geographic Information Systems (GIS) files for land-use planning, hazard mitigation, and disaster preparedness and response. For more information, see the website or contact FEMA, 400 C St. SW, Washington, DC 20472; tel: 1-202-566-1600.

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Go Data Shopping!

Shopping Cart with DataMore and more data for research on climate variability and change are becoming available. The data, however, are often difficult to access and surprisingly underused. To remedy this situation, the IPRC (International Pacific Research Center) has established the APDRC (Asia Pacific Data Research Center), which has four parts: (1) data server system; (2) data management and archive building, (3) value-added data-intensive research projects, and (4) coordination and collaboration. The APDRC aims to increase understanding of climate variability in the Asia-Pacific area and make data resources readily accessible and usable by researchers, who have a choice of software applications and a "shopping cart." If you have an Asia-Pacific climate project, go shopping for data at apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu and let the ADPRC team know what works for you and what does not! (from IPRC Climate Newsletter, University of Hawaii at Manoa)

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In Memoriam - F. Kenneth Hare, 1919-2002

Kenneth Hare, a distinguished environmental scientist, climatologist, and biogeography researcher, passed away 3 September 2002. Dr. Hare was a meteorologist with the British air ministry during World War II, and emigrated to Canada in 1945. He earned his PhD as an arctic climatologist. Hare believed that the most urgent environmental challenge facing Canada in the coming century is climate change created by consumption of fossil fuels. He had a long and distinguished career at McGill University and Trent University and was awarded 11 honorary degrees, as well as the 1989 International Meteorological Organization Prize from the WMO, among many others.

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To submit an item to appear in the next ENSO Signal, please use the on-line form in the Comments and Feedback section, or send an email to enso@ucar.edu. Information to be included in the next issue of the ENSO Signal must be received by 31 March 2003.