APPENDIX D

1991/92 Drought in Southern Africa:
Master Bibliography

Articles/reports are divided into the following general categories:

  1. Assessments: These are retrospective assessments of the response to the drought conducted by various organizations.

  2. Drought--Southern Africa: These articles provide an overview of the impacts of the 1991-1992 drought, government responses to the drought, and regional and international responses to the drought.

  3. Early Warning Systems: These articles discuss the regional and national early warning systems in place in Southern Africa. They do not necessarily address specific actions taken during the 1991-1992 drought. Such information may be found in articles on the drought and food security.

  4. ENSO and Teleconnections: These articles address the forecast of the ENSO event associated with the 1991-1992 drought in Southern Africa. Some articles look back on the event and its impacts on Southern Africa. Some articles discuss the link between ENSO and drought.

  5. Food Security: These articles address the international, regional, and national actions taken in Southern Africa to keep the drought from leading to widespread famine. They contain extensive information on the amount and cost of food and non-food aid that came into the region. There are also some general articles on food security in Southern Africa that are interesting in their lack of discussion of drought.

  6. IMF--Structural Adjustment: These articles contain information on the structural adjustment programs in place in Southern Africa at the time of the 1991-1992 drought (in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe).

  7. SADC: These articles provide background information on the SADC--its evolution, its organizational structure, its mission, etc.

1. Assessments

Collins, Carole. 1993. "Famine Defeated: Southern Africa, UN win battle against drought." Africa Recovery Briefing Paper. 9. New York: UN Department of Public Information.

Dinoto, L. 1993. "Drought in Southern Africa: Impact and Lessons for the Future." CRS Report for Congress. Washington DC: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.

Institute of Development Studies. 1992. "Drought and Famine in Southern Africa: the proceedings of a one-day conference."

International Federation of the Red Cross. 1993. "Regional Disaster management Workshop, 4-8 April 1993." Harare, Zimbabwe.

Management Systems International. 1994. "Famine Averted: The United States Government Response to the 1991-92 Southern Africa Drought."

Mason, J. and LeBlanc, M. 1994. "Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance Evaluation of Africare Emergency Water Relief Regional Project: Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, July 16-August 7, 1993." Prepared for the Agency of International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Disaster Response Division.

Office of the UN Resident Coordinator, UNDP Resident Representative, and UN Drought Relief Task Force for Zimbabwe. 1992. "Drought Impact in Zimbabwe: Assessment and Additional Requirements." Harare, Zimbabwe.

Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Bureau for Food and Humanitarian Assistance, Agency for International Development. 1992. "Southern African Drought Assessment: March 24-April 29, 1992." Washington DC: USAID.

Rook, J. 1994. "The SADC Regional Early Warning System: Experiences Gains and Some Lessons Learnt from the 1991-92 Southern African Drought." Usable Science: Food Security, Early Warning, and El Niño. Proceedings of the Workshop on ENSO/FEWS, Budapest, Hungary, 25-28 October 1993. Boulder, CO: Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

SADC Food Security Technical and Administrative Unit. 1993. "Assessment of the Response to the 1991/92 Drought in the SADC Region." Harare, Zimbabwe.

SADC/WFP Logistics Advisory Centre. 1993. "Assessment of the Response to the 1991/1992 Drought in the SADC Region." Harare, Zimbabwe.

SADC. 1993. "Report of the Regional Drought Management Workshop, Volume I, Workshop Proceedings." Harare, Zimbabwe.

Sayagués, Mercedes. nd. "A disaster averted." WFP Journal. n. 25:22-25.

UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs and SADC. 1992. "Drought Emergency in Southern Africa: Consolidated UN-SADC Appeal Midterm Review." Geneva: UNDHA.

US Agency for International Development. 1993. "Report to Congress on the Southern African Drought." Washington DC: USAID.

2. Drought--Southern Africa

Agence France Presse. 1993. "Zimbabwe wins 789 million dollars of foreign aid." (December 14).

Agence France Presse. 1992. "Mugabe extends state of disaster." (September 11).

Agra Europe. 1992. "South Africa to Help Beleaguered Farmers" (May 1): M12.

Ansah Ayisi, R. 1992. "Mozambique: Drought and Desperation." Africa Report (May/June): 33-35.

Baker, S. "Zimbabwe's Mugabe Calls for More Drought Aid," Reuters (May 11, 1992).

Banda, G. 1992. "Drought File 2: Second Report of Oxfam Partners on the Drought of 1991/92" (July/August). Oxfam, Lusaka.

Battersby, J. 1992. "South Africa's Relief Plan Seen as Racially Biased." The Christian Science Monitor. (December 16): 15.

Battersby, J. 1992. "Severe Drought Fuels Debt in South Africa." The Christian Science Monitor. (March 11): p. 1--The World.

Battersby, J. 1992. "Southern Africa Fights Drought of the Century." The Christian Science Monitor. (December 16): 9.

Battersby, J. 1992. "Food-for-Work Builds Esteem, Communities." The Christian Science Monitor. (December 16): 15.

BBC Monitoring Service. 1992. "South Africa: Drought Aid Agreement Signed with Zimbabwe." (June 16).

Benson, C. and E. Clay. 1994. "The Impact of the Drought on Sub-Saharan African Economies: A Preliminary Examination." London: Overseas Development Institute.

Brooks, J. 1992. "Drought ravages the planet: and man's pollution could be the cause." The Sunday Star [South Africa]. (March 29): 4.

Chiledi, A. 1992. "Southern Africa: Drought Worsens, More Aid Needed Urgently." Inter Press Service (August 26).

Chinaka, C. 1992. "Zimbabwe appeals for more food." Reuter Library Service (September 14).

Chiposa, S. 1992. "Zambia: Drought Brings Crisis in Electricity Sector--ZESCO will Have to Import Supplies." Reuter Textline African Business. (October 1).

Chiposa, S. 1992. "Zambia: Drought-Relief efforts herald major policy change." Reuter Textline African Business (December 1).

Department of Agriculture. 1992. "Farmers Advised to Cull up to 6-% of their Game." Landbounuus Agricultural News. n. 25:1.

Department of Agriculture. 1992. "News Release by Dr. AI.I. Van Niekerk, MP, Minister of Agriculture and Agricultural Development: Aid to Cooperatives." (October 23). Pretoria: Division of Media Services, Department of Agriculture.

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. 1992. "Information Document: Review of Drought Situation." (July). Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.

Drew, R. 1992. "Milk crisis looms in dairy revolt." Weekend Argus. (February 15): 18.

"Drought in Southern Africa Requires Urgent Action." 1992. The Hunger Project Global Newsletter. (June): 1-3.

Drought Monitoring Centres. Drought Monitoring Bulletin: Eastern and Southern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya/Harare, Zimbabwe: DMC. [We reviewed all issues for 1992.]

Eakin, Hallie. 1993. "Weighing Risk: Structural Adjustment and Drought in Zimbabwe." Brown University.

Erasmus, C. 1992. "Epic Drought Scourges Southern Africa." (July 7). Gannett News Service.

Ferreira, Anton. 1992. "Drought Drives Southern Africa to Despair." (April 13).

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP). 1992. Special Alert No. 227: Summary Report of FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions to Drought-Affected Countries of Southern Africa. Rome.

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1992. "Assessment of Agricultural and Livestock Requirements as Related to Drought." September. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Office of Special Relief Operations (ORSO).

Gill, Andrew. 1992. "South Africa Urges Zimbabwe to Join Drought Plan." (April 3). Reuters News Service.

Government of the Republic of Zambia. 1992. "The 1992 Zambian Drought: Impacts, Responses and Costs." March. Lusaka.

Green, Reginald H. 1993. "The Political Economy of Drought in Southern Africa: 1991-1993." Health Policy and Planning. 8:255-266.

Green, R. 1992. "Southern Africa: that the people may be fed." Food Policy. (December): 455-464.

Grimmett, M. 1992. "Drought in Southern Africa." Peace Corps Times. (Fall): 11.

Harsch, E. 1992. "Drought devastates Southern Africa." Africa Recovery. (April): 3.

Hill, H. 1992. "A Wildlife Wasteland." Africa Report. (September/October): 42-44.

Hobson, S. and R. Short. 1993. "A Perspective on the 1991-92 Drought in South Africa." Drought Network News. 5(1): 3-6.

Inter Press Service. 1992. "Southern Africa: Drought Could Threaten Millions, Says World Bank." (August 27).

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 1992. Operations Report 1991/92. Geneva.

Jangira, L. 1993. "Mission Report: SADC Drought Management Workshop, Harare, Zimbabwe, 13-16 September 1993." Africa Section, UNICEF.

Laing, M.V. 1992. "Drought Update 1991-92: South Africa." Drought Network News. 4(2):15-17.

Laing, M.V. 1992. "The season so far: July 1991-March 1992." South Africa Weather Bureau Newsletter. (March).

Laishley, Roy. 1992. "Drought Dims Hope of Faster Recovery." Africa Report. 6:1.

Machiri, S.T. 1994. "Regional Drought Workshop in Southern Africa Issues Meeting Summary." Drought Network News. 6: 7-11.

MacKenzie, I. 1992. "Zimbabwe, South Africa Develop Key Border Post." Reuter Library Report (March 31).

MacKenzie, I. 1992. "Zimbabwe Lives Hand-to-Mouth, But Maize Arriving." The Reuter Library Report (April 23).

MacLean, William. 1992. "Drought Seen Aiding South African Game, Tourism." Reuters News Service.

MacRae, E. 1992. "Drought in Zimbabwe: the dynamics of disaster." Geographical Magazine. (September): 12.

Matimba, T. 1992. "Zimbabwe: Drought Stricken Cattle Being Relocated." Inter Press Service (June 25).

Meldrum, Andrew. 1992. "The Big Scorcher." Africa Report. (May/June): 25-27.

Meldrum, A. 1992. "Southern Africa's drought scorches beyond maize fields." Weekly Mail [South Africa]. April 10: 12.

Mhkondo, R. 1992. "South Africa: Drought Forces Blacks into South African Cities." Reuter News Service (July 27).

Oberdorfer, D. 1992. "30 Million Threatened by Drought in Africa." The Washington Post (April 12): A28.

Omolo, Leo Odera. 1992. "Drought Grips Southern Africa." New African. (May).

Organization of Rural Associations for Progress (ORAP). 1992. "The 1992 Drought and the Structural Adjustment Programme in Zimbabwe: Preliminary Report." (April). Harare.

Origin Universal News Services Limited. 1992. "British Aid Agencies to Launch `Africa in Crisis' Appeal." (August 25).

Palmer, R. 1992. "The Drought in Southern Africa." Oxfam Briefing Paper.

Palmer, R. 1992. "Hundreds of Millions Pledged for African Drought." (June 1). Reuters News Service.

Palmer, R. 1992. "Drought Consequences." The Times. (June 9).

Pettifer, J. 1992. "Africa's Drought of Despair." The Guardian (September 18): 27.

"Prudence that Protected Post-Independence Gains May Be Undone by Drought." 1992. The Guardian. (August 19): 10.

Reuter News Service. 1992. "Namibia Loses 80 Pct of Commercial Maize Crop." (March 2).

Reuter News Service. 1992. "Over Two Million Said to Need Food in S. Africa." (April 18).

Reuter News Service. 1992. "Worst Drought this Century May Kill 3M Mozambicans." The Guardian. (May 11) 8.

Reuter Library Report. 1992. "World Bank, IMF Gear Up to Aid Drought-Hit Africa." (April 28).

Reuter News Service. 1992. "500 million pledged for Southern Africa drought." (June 2).

Reuter News Service. 1992. "Southern African Food Needs May Persist--US Official."

Reuter Textline--African Economic Digest. 1992. "South Africa: Drought Makes Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference Work with Government." (May 4).

Reuter Textline--African Economic Digest. 1992. "South Africa: Drought Threatens Farm-Workers' Jobs." (March 9).

Reuter News Service. 1992. "South Africa: Drought--Good News for South Africa's Big Game?" (August 3).

Reuter News Service. 1992. "South Africa: Drought Delays S. African Vanadium Pentoxide Plant." (June 26).

Reuter News Service. 1993. "South Africa: Drought to Cost South African Sugar Industry R600 Mln." (April 27).

Reuter News Service. 1993. "South Africa: Drought Forces NPB to Bulldoze St. Lucia Mouth Open." (September 21).

Reuters, Limited. 1992. "South Africa Sees Recovery Lagging World Upturn." (September 23).

Sayagues, M. 1992. "The Parched Earth: Drought in Southern Africa." Refugees. (July): 4-7.

Sayagues, M. 1993. "Southern Africa: A disaster averted." WFP Journal. (July-September) n. 25: 22-25.

Smith, D. 1993. "Drought Policy and Sustainability: Lessons from South Africa." Search. 24: 292-295.

"South Africa Drought Hits Rural Poor Hardest: Aid Workers Say Government Ignored Black Farmers." 1992. Africa News. (October 26).

"Southern Africa: The Rains that Failed." The Economist. (March 28): 36.

"Southern Africa: Planning Reduced the Development Costs of Drought." 1994. Drought Network News. 6: 5-6. Reprinted from DHA News. 1994. no. 7: 45-46.

Thornycroft, Peta. 1992. "The Man Made Drought." The Star [South Africa]. (December): 47.

UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs and SADCC. 1992. "Drought Emergency in Southern Africa: Situation Report September 1992." no. 2. Geneva: Department of Humanitarian Affiars.

UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs and SADCC. 1992. "Drought Emergency in Southern Africa: Situation Report August 1992." no. 1. Geneva: Department of Humanitarian Affairs.

UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs and SADCC. 1992. "Drought Emergency in Southern Africa: Situation Report October 1992." no. 3. Geneva: Department of Humanitarian Affairs.

UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs and SADCC. 1992. "Drought Emergency in Southern Africa: Consolidated UN-SADCC Appeal" May. Geneva: Department of Humanitarian Affairs.

Unganai, Leonard. 1994. "Drought and Southern Africa: A Note from the Harare Regional Drought Monitoring Centre." Drought Network News. 6:7-9.

US House of Representatives. 1992. "Southern African Drought: Implications for U.S. Policy Initiatives." Hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives (June 9).

US Mission. 1992. "Drought in Southern Africa," Harare, Zimbabwe.

USAID. 1992. "Southern Africa Drought Emergency." Situation Report No. 9. (November 17). Washington, DC: Agency for International Development, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance.

USAID. 1992. "Southern Africa Drought Emergency." Situation Report No. 6. (July 1). Washington, DC: Agency for International Development, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance.

USAID. Famine Early Warning System (FEWS). 1992. "Southern Africa Drought: Current conditions and concerns." February 27. Washington DC.

Vogel, C.H. 1994. Consequences of Drought in Southern Africa (1960-1992). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Witswatersrand, South Africa.

Wilson, K. nd. "The impact of drought and structural adjustment on household livelihood and welfare in the Mazvihwa Communal Area of Zvishavane District of Southern Zimbabwe." Oxford: University of Oxford, Refugee Study Program; Harare: Oxfam-UK.

Working Group on Nutrition of Refugee and Displaced Populations. 1993. "Country Experiences in Famine Mitigation: Southern Africa." Draft prepared for meeting 20-21 December.

World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction. 1994. "Disasters Around the World--A Global and Regional View." Information Paper #4. Yokohama, Japan, 23-27 May.

Wren, C. 1992. "Drought Unites South Africa and Neighbors." The New York Times (June 18): 13A.

Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 1992. "Zambia, S. Africa establish official relations." (October).

2a. Subsequent Drought--Southern Africa

Burroughs, W. 1995. "USA: Turned out baffling again-long-term weather forecasting-mind and matter." Reuters Information Services. (January 16).

Christie, I. 1994. "Newly Democratized Mozambique Faces Food Disaster." Reuters Information Services. (December 22).

"Drought over Southern Africa." The Economist. April 29, 1995.

European Business Report. 1994. "Farmers urge Zimbabwe to declare drought disaster." (December 23).

Hamlyn, M. 1994. "Southern Africa: Heat Wave Grips Southern Africa." Reuters Information Services. (December 23).

MacKenzie, I. 1994. "Southern Africa Faces Food Crisis from Drought." Reuters Information Services. (December 22).

McIver, Chris. 1995. "Drought Grips Southern Africa." New African. (November): 31.

Mdlongwa, F. 1995. "Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe maize output seen declining by 30 percent." Reuters Information Services. (January 6).

Mutume, G. 1994. "Southern Africa-Drought: Patchy rain worries farmers." Global Information Network. (December 6).

Reuter World Service. 1994. "Zimbabwe suspends maize exports on drought fears." (December 23).

Reuters Information Services. 1995. "Zimbabwe: Southern Africa warned of drought as rains fall." (January 9).

Reuters Information Services. 1994. "Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe suspends maize exports on drought fears." (December 23).

Reuters Information Services. 1995. "South Africa: Drought Aid Seen Vital for N.Tvl. Despite Floods." (January 9).

"Southern Africa: Science-Forecasts that Predict the Next Famine." 1994. Daily Telegraph. (November 20): 14.

3. Early Warning

Barber, B. 1994. "Satellites, Other Means Help US to Detect African Famines Earlier." The Christian Science Monitor. (July 8).

Buchanan-Smith, M., S. Davies, and C. Petty. 1993. "The Use and Abuse of Early Warning Information." Arid Lands Newsletter. v. 34.

Buchanan-Smith, M., S. Davies, and R. Lambert. 1991. "A Guide to Famine Early Warning and Food Information Systems in the Sahel and Horn of Africa, Volume 2." Institute of Development Studies, Report No. 21. University of Sussex.

Buchanan-Smith, M. and Downing, T. 1992. "Drought and famine in Africa: Time for effective action." Food Policy. (December): 465-467.

Cane, M., Eshel, G., and Buckland, R. 1994. "Forecasting Zimbabwean maize yield using eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature." Nature. 370: 204-205.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1990. "Zambia: Project Findings and Recommendations." Terminal report of the Crop Forecasting and Early Warning System Project. AG:GCPS/ZAM/019/NET. Rome.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1991. "Early Warning System for Food Security: Zimbabwe-Project Findings and Recommendations." Rome.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1992. "Review of Improvements in the Global Information and Early Warning System and FAO-Supported National and Regional Early Warning Systems." Rome: FAO, Committee on World Food Security.

Glantz, Michael H. 1996. "Are Famines So Difficult to Predict?" Internet Journal for African Studies. http:/www.brad.ac.uk/research/igas. (April).

Glantz, Michael H. 1994. Usable Science: Food Security, Early Warning and El Niño. Proceedings of a Workshop. Budapest, Hungary, 25-28 October. Boulder, CO: Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Glantz, Michael H. 1990. "Why Are Famines Difficult to Predict?" The World and I. January:409-415.

Glantz, Michael H. 1981. "Considerations of the societal value of an El Niño forecast and the 1972-73 El Niño" in M.H. Glantz and J.D Thompson (eds.) Resource Management and Environmental Uncertainty: Lessons from Coastal Upwelling Fisheries. NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Glantz, Michael H. 1979. Saskatchewan Spring Wheat Production 1974: A Preliminary Assessment of a Reliable Long-range Forecast. Environment Canada Climatological Studies No. 33. Downsview, Ontario: Environment Canada.

Glantz, Michael H. 1977. "The value of a long-range weather forecast for the West African Sahel." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 58:150-158.

Hiemstra, Y. 1993. "The National Early Warning System for Food Security (NEWS)." Lusaka: Government of Zambia, Ministry for Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries, Planning Division.

Hutchinson, C. 1992. "Early Warning and Vulnerability Assessment for Famine Mitigation." Famine Mitigation Strategy Paper.Washington, DC: Agency for International Development, Bureau of Food and Humanitarian Assistance, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance.

Hutchinson, C.F. 1991. "Uses of satellite data for famine early warning in sub-Saharan Africa." International Journal of Remote Sensing.12: 1405-1421.

Laing, M.V. 1994. "Drought Monitoring and Advisory Services in South Africa." Drought Network News. 6: 12-15.

Newhouse, P. 1992. "Global Warning." Refugees. (July): 14-15.

"Southern Africa: Science-forecasts that predict the next famine." 1994. Daily Telegraph. (November 30).

Todorov, A. and T. Ngara. 1987. "SADCC's Early Warning System for Food Security." Southern Africa: Food Security Options. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, 1-5 November, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

4. ENSO and Teleconnections

Abramson, R. 1992. "New El Niño Verified; Could be Disruptive." Los Angeles Times. (January 14): A1.

American Meteorological Society. 1989. Third International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Boston: American Meteorological Society.

"An application of a simple coupled ocean atmosphere model to the study of seasonal climate prediction." Journal of Climate. 5(9): 987-1001.

Battersby, J. 1992. "Charting the Causes of Declining Rainfall." The Christian Science Monitor. (December 16): 11.

Bjerknes, J. 1969. "Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific." Monthly Weather Review. 97: 163-172.

Blackmon, M.L., J.E. Geisler, and E.J. Pitcher. 1983. "A general circulation model study of January climate anomaly patterns associated with interannual variation of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures." Journal of Atmospheric Science. 40: 1410-1425.

Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Seasonal Climate Outlook. Melbourne, Australia: Bureau of Meteorology, National Climate Center.[We examined all issues from January 1991 to December 1992].

Cane, M.A., G. Eshel, and R.W. Buckland. 1994. "Forecasting Zimbabwe Maize Yield using Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea-Surface Temperature." Nature. 370(6486): 204-205.

Chao, Y. and D. Halpern. 1993. "Sea-surface height variability during 1986-1988 in the tropical Pacific ocean." Journal of Climate. 6(1): 42-63.

Clewett, J.F., B.O. Gordon, I.J. Partridge, J.R. Willcocks and M.E. Voice. 1991. "Will it rain? El Niño and the Southern Oscillation." Technical Report. QDPI, Brisbane, Australia.

Climate Analysis Center. Climate Diagnostics Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center. [We reviewed all issues in 1991].

Climate Analysis Center. "El Niño/Southern Oscillation Diagnostic Advisory." Weekly Climate Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center. [We reviewed all ENSO advisories for 1990, 1991, and 1992].

da Silva, W. 1991. "Australian Drought, Peruvian Floods Possible as El Niño Builds." Reuter News Service. (August 28).

Delcroix, T., G. Eldin, M. McPhaden, and A. Morliere. 1993. "Effects of Westerly Wind Bursts upon the Western Equatorial Pacific-Ocean, February-April 1991." Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 98(C9): 16379-16385.

Dent, M.C., R.E. Schulze, H.M.M. Wills and S.D. Lynch. 1987. "Spatial and temporal analysis of the recent drought in the summer rainfall region of Southern Africa." Water SA. 13: 37-42.

Druyan, L.M. 1989. "Advances in the study of sub-Saharan drought." International Journal of Climatology. 9: 77-90.

Edwards, M. 1992. "El Niño Anomaly." South Africa Weather Bureau Newsletter. (January): 23.

"El Niño/Southern Oscillation and rainfall in Southern Africa." 1993. FEWS Bulletin. December 20.

"El Niño Weather Phenomenon Returns." 1991. Orlando Sentinel Tribune. (October 7): A8.

Enfield, D.B. 1989. "El Niño, past and present." Reviews of Geophysics. 27: 159-187.

Flohn, H. and H. Fleer. 1975. "Climatic Teleconnections with the Equatorial Pacific and the Role of Ocean/Atmosphere Coupling." Atmosphere. 13(3): 96-109.

Frederiksen, J.S. and C.S. Frederiksen. 1993. "Monsoon Disturbances, Intraseasonal Oscillations, Teleconnection Patterns, Blocking & Storm Tracks of the Global Atmosphere during January 1979."

Gent, P.R. and J.J. Tribbia. 1993. "Simulation and predictability in a coupled TOGA model." Journal of Climate. 6(10): 1843-1858.

Glantz, Michael H. 1996. Currents of Change: El Niño's Impact on Climate and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Glantz, M.H., R. Katz, and M. Krenz (eds.). 1987. The Societal Impacts Associated with the 1982-83 Worldwide Climate Anomalies. Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, United Nations Publications Office, New York.

Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research. UK Meteorological Office. Fax Communication.

Halpern, D. and M. Ji. 1993. "An evaluation of the National Meteorological Center weekly hindcast of upper-ocean temperature along the eastern Pacific equator in January 1992." Journal of Climate. 6(6): 1027-1040.

Halpert, M.S. and C.F. Ropelewski. 1993. Fourth Annual Climate Assessment: 1992. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center.

Hardeen, J.V. 1990. "Drought prediction: some early results in Southern Africa" in Proceedings of the SARCCUS workshop on drought, June 1990, South Africa.

Harrison, D.E. and A.P. Craig. 1992. "Ocean model studies of upper-ocean variability at 0-degrees, 160-degrees-w during the 1982-1983 ENSO-local and remotely forced response." Search. 50(4): 567-609.

Harrison, M.S.J. 1986. "The Southern Oscillation and South African rainfall." South African Journal of Science. 82: 196-198.

Harrison, M.S.J. 1986. A synoptic climatology of South African rainfall variations. unpublished PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Hunt, B.G. and H.B. Gordon. 1990. "Droughts, Floods and sea surface temperature anomalies." International Journal of Climatology.

Hunt, B.G. 1991. "The simulation and prediction of drought." Vegetatio. 91: 89-103.

Hunt, B.G., S.E. Zebiak, and M.A. Cane. 1994. "Experimental Predictions of Climatic Variability for lead times of 12 months." International Journal of Climatology. 14(5): 507-526.

Inoue, M. 1993. "Modeling seasonal variability in the wind-driven upper-layer circulation in the Indo-Pacific region." Journal of Climate. 6(6): 1221-1226.

Inter Press Service. 1992. "Environment: Southern African Drought Could Have Been Predicted." (June 11).

Jury, M.R. 1994. "Regional teleconnection patterns associated with summer rainfall over South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe." International Journal of Climatology (submitted).

Jury, M.R. et al. 1992. Correlation Atlas of Climatic Determinants for Sub-Tropcial Southern Africa and the SW Indian Ocean. University of Cape Town.

Jury, M.R. and B. Pathack. 1993. "Climatic patterns associated with the 1992 drought over Southern Africa: observations and GCM results." Journal of the African Meteorological Society, 2.

Jury, M.R. and K. Levey. 1993. "The climatology and characteristics of drought in the eastern cape of South Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 13: 629-641.

Kerr, R. 1992. "A Successful Forecast of a Winter El Niño." Science. 255: 402.

Kidson, J.W. 1977. "African rainfall and its relation to the upper air circulation." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 103: 46-48.

Kiladis, G.N. and H.F. Diaz. 1989. "Global climatic anomalies associated with extremes in the southern oscillation." Journal of Climate. 2: 1069-1090.

Kiladis, G.N. & K.M. Weickmann. 1992. "Circulation Anomalies associated with tropical convection during northern winter." Monthly Weather Review. 120(9): 1900.

Kirkman, D. 1991. "Drastic changes in world climate coming: scientists." The Gazette [Montreal]. (July 6): K6.

Kleeman, R. 1993. "On the dependence of the hindcast skill on ocean thermodynamics on a coupled ocean-atmosphere model." Journal of Climate. 6(11): 2012-2033.

Kousky, V.E., M.T. Kagano and I.F. Cavalcanti. 1984. "A review of the southern oscillation: oceanic-atmospheric circulation changes and related rainfall anomalies." Tellus. 36A: 490-502.

Kousky, V.E. 199_. "Seasonal climate summary. The global climate of December 1991-February 1992: Mature-phase warm (ENSO) episode conditions develop."

Land, T. 1995. "Better Weather Forecasts to Save Lives." Development and Cooperation. no. 3.

Landsberg, H.E. 1982. "Climatic aspects of droughts." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 63: 593-596.

Latif, M. and A. Sterl. 1993. "Climate variability in a coupled GCM-the tropical Pacific." Journal of Physical Oceanography. 23(4): 626-647.

LeComte, D. 1988. "Global Highlights." Weatherwise. February: 10+.

LeComte, D. 1984. "Year of worldwide extremes: floods and droughts." Weaterhwise. 37(1): 8-11, 14-17.

Lindesay, J.A. 1988. The Southern Oscillation and atmospheric circulation changes over Southern Africa. unpublished PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Lindesay, J.A. 1994. "Present climates of Southern Africa." in J.E. Hobbs (ed.) Southern Hemisphere Climates: Present, Past and Future. (London: Belhaven Press).

Lindesay, J.A. 1988. "Southern African rainfall, the Southern Oscillation and a southern hemisphere semi-annual cycle." Journal of Climatology. 8: 17-30.

Lindesay, J.A. and C.H. Vogel. 1990. "Historical evidence for Southern Oscillation-Southern African rainfall relationships." International Journal of Climatology. 10: 679-689.

Lindesay, J.A. 1988. "South African Rainfall, the southern oscillation and the southern hemisphere semi-annual cycle." Journal of Climatology. 8(1): 17-30.

Lockwood, J.G., A. Makarau, M.R. Jury, and A. Rocha. 1993. Predictibility of Zimbabwe Summer Rainfall." International Journal of Climatology. (submitted).

Lyons, S.W. 1991. "Origins of convective variability over equatorial Southern Africa during austral summer." Journal of Climate. 4(1): 23.

Makarau, A. 1992. The El Niño, Southern Oscillation and Rainfall in Zimbabwe. unpublished.

Mason, S.J. 1992. Sea Surface Temperatures and South African rainfall variability. unpublished PhD thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Mason, S.J. 1990. "Temporal variability of sea surface temperatures around Southern Africa: a possible forcing mechanism for the eighteen-year rainfall oscillation." South African Journal of Science. 86: 243-252.

Mason, S.J., J.A. Lindesay & P.D. Tyson. 1994. "Simulation drought in Southern Africa using SST variations." Water S.A. 20(1): 15.

Matarira, C.H. 1990. "Drought over Zimbabwe in a regional and global context." International Journal of Climatology. 10: 609-625.

Matarira, C.H. and L.S. Unganai. 1994. A rainfall prediction model for Southern Africa based on the southern oscillation phenomena. SADC/FAO Early Warning System Technical Handbook. Harare, Zimbabwe.

Mitchell, J.M. Jr. 1976. "An overview of climate variability and its causal mechanisms." Quarterly Research. 6: 481-493.

Mo, K.C., X.L. Wang & M.S. Tracton. 1994. "Tropical and Extratropical Interaction and its impacts on extended-range forecasting. Part I: the impact of SST anomalies." Monthly Weather Review. 122(2): 274.

Monastersky, R. 1992. "Old and tired, an El Niño hints of its end." Science News. 142: 5.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1994. Fifth Annual Climate Assessment: 1993. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1992. Third Annual Climate Assessment: 1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center, Climate Analysis Center.

Nicholls, N. 1987. "ENSO and rainfall variability." Journal of Climate. 1: 418-421.

Nicholls, N. 1988. "El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Rainfall Variability." Journal of Climate. 1: 418+.

Nicholson, S.E. 1989. "African drought: characteristics, causal theories and global teleconnections" in A. Berger, R.E. Dickinson, and J.W. Kidson (eds.) Understanding Climate Change. Geophysical Monograph 52. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union: 79-100.

Nicholson, S. 1989. "Africa: long-term changes in African rainfall." Weather. 44(2): 47.

Nicholson, S. 1985. "Sub-Saharan rainfall 1981-84." J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24: 1388-1391.

Nicholson, S.E. and D. Entekhabi. 1986. "The quasi-periodic behaviour of rainfall variability in Africa and its relationship to the Southern Oscillation." Archiv fur Meteorlogie, geophysik und Bioklimatologie. Ser. A., 34: 311-348.

Nicholson, S. 1986. "The spatial coherence of Africa rainfall anomalies: interhemispheric teleconeections." J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 1365-1380.

Ogallo, L.J. 1987. "Impacts of the 1982-83 ENSO event on eastern and Southern Africa" in M.H. Glantz, R. Katz, and M. Krenz (eds.) The Societal Impacts Associated with the 1982-83 Worldwide Climate Anomalies. (New York: United Nations Publications Office).

Pearce, F. 1991. "Science and Technology/Excitingly predictable." The Independent. (November 17): 52.

Picaut, J. and L. Sombardier. 1993. "Influence of density stratification and bottom depth on vertical-mode structure functions in the tropical Pacific." Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 98(C8): 14727-14737.

Preston-Whyte, R.A. & P.D. Tyson. 1989. The atmosphere and weather of Southern Africa. (Cape Town: Oxford University Press).

Quiroz, R.S. 1983. "The climate of the El Niño winter of 1982-1983. A season of extraordinary climatic anomalies." Monthly Weather Review. 111: 1685-1706.

Quiroz, R.S. 1983. "The climate of the El Niño winter of 1982-83." Monthly Weather Review. III: 1685-1706.

Ramage, C.S. and A.M Hori. 1981. "Meteorological aspects of El Niño." Monthly Weather Review. 109: 1827-1835.

Rasmusson, E.M. 1990. "Intraseasonal and interannual climate variability." Climatic Change. 16: 153-171.

Rasmusson, E.M. and T. Carpenter. 1982. "Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the southern oscillation/El Niño." Monthly Weather Review. 110: 354-384.

Rasmusson, E.M. and P.A. Arkin. 1993. "A global view of large-scale precipitation variability." Journal of Climate. 6(8): 1495-1522.

Rasmusson, E.M. 1987. "The prediction of drought, a meteorological perspective." Endeavour. 11: 175-182.

Rasmusson, E.M. 1985. "El Niño and variations in climate." American Scientist. 73: 168-178.

Reason, C.J.C. 1992 "On the effect of ENSO precipitation anomalies in global ocean GCM." Climate Dynamics. 8(1): 39.

Rocha, A. 1992. The influence of global sea surface temperatures on Southern African summer climate. Ph.D. thesis. University of Melbourne, Australia.

Ropelewski, C.F., P. Lamb, and D.H. Portis. 1993. "The global climate from June to August 1990: Drought returns to sub-Saharan West Africa and warm southern oscillation episode conditions develop in central Pacific." Journal of Climate. 6(11): 2188.

Ropelewski, C.F. and M.S. Halpert. 1989. "Precipitation patterns assciated with the high index phase of the southern oscillation." Journal of Climate. 2: 268-284.

Ropelewski, C.F. and M.S. Halpert. 1987. "Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation." Monthly Weather Review. 115: 1606-1626.

Schonwiese, C.D. 1994. "Analysis and Prediction of Global Climate Temperature-Change Based on Multiforced Observational Satistics." Environmental Pollution. 83(1-2): 149-154.

Seery, B. 1992. "El Niño's worst 'over by April.'" The Sunday Star. (February 16): 17.

Shukla, J. and D.A. Mooley. 1987. "Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation." Monthly Weather Review. 115: 695-703.

Smith, I.N. & H.B. Gordon. 1992. "Simulations of precipitation & atmospheric circulation changes associated with warm SSTs: results from an ensemble of long-term intergrations with idealized anomalies." Climate Dynamics. 7(3): 141.

Stein, M. 1993. "Victory Claimed in Predicting El Niño." Los Angeles Times. (December 13): A3.

Stevens, W. 1994. "El Niño Said to Predict Rain and Crops in Africa." The New York Times. (July 26): B7.

Sturman, A. 1991. "R.A. Preston-Whyte and P.D. Tyson: The atmosphere and weather of Southern Africa." New Zealand Geographer. 47(2): 90.

Taljaard, J.J. 1989. "Climate and circulation anomalies in the South African region during the dry summer of 1982-83." South African Weather Bureau Technical Paper, no. 21. Weather Bureau, Pretoria.

Tyree, M., T.P. Barnett & L. Bengtsson. 1994. "Forecasting Global ENSO-related climate anomalies." Tellus. 46(4): 381.

Tyson, P.D. 1986. Climatic Change & Variability in Southern Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Van Heerden, J. 1989. "Drought Prediction: some early results in Southern Africa." SARCCUS Workshop on Drought.

Waliser, D.E. and C. Gautier. 1993. "A satellite-derived climatology of the ITCZ." Journal of Climate. 6(11): 2162-2174.

Walker, N.D. and F.A. Shillington. 1990. "The effect of oceanographic variability on South African weather and climate." Global and Planetary Change. 82(1-2): 5-37.

Wang, X. 1993. "The global climate for March-May 1992: mature phase warm episode continues in the tropcial Pacific." Journal of Climate. 6(12): 2465-2485.

Woods, M.J. 1991. "Beware, El Niño is on its way once more." The Star. (December 7).

Zhang, C.D. 1993. "Large-scale variability of atmospheric deep convection in relation to sea-surface temperature in the tropics." Journal of Climate. 6(10): 1898-1913.

5. Food Security

Almond, G.W.J., K.J.M. Dhliwayo, and F.H. Drane. 1987. "The SADCC Regional Food Reserve Project." Southern Africa: Food Security Options. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Food Security Research in Southern Africa, 1-5 November 1987. Harare: University of Zimbabwe: 43-61.

Bakker, H.P. 1992. "Deadly drought plagues millions." Weekend Argus. (February 15): 18.

Banda, G.C. 1992. "Adjustment and Food: Issues of Food Security in Zambia." A Report for Oxfam Zambia. Lusaka: Institute for Policy Studies.

Blackie, Malcolm. 1990. "Maize, food self-sufficiency and policy in East and Southern Africa." Food Policy. (October): 383-394.

Bratton, M. 1987. "Drought, Food and the Social Organization of Small Farmers in Zimabwe" in M. Glantz (ed.) Drought and Hunger in Africa: Denying Famine a Future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Central Statistics Office. 1996. "Quarterly Digest of Statistics." (June). Harare: Zimbabwe.

Colella, Whitney. 1996. "How ENSO Forecasts Can be Used to Mitigate the Effects of Drought in Southern Africa." Unpublished manuscript. Princeton University.

Dannhauser, Diana. 1992. "Lifeline to Starving Millions." Southern Africa Today. (August): 13-15.

Downing, Thomas E. nd. "Climate Change and Vulnerable Places: Global Food Security and Country Studies in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Senegal, and Chile." Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford.

Dreze, Jean and Amartya Sen. 1989. Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

"Drought of Africa." 1992. The Times [London] (May 29): 15.

Famine Early Warning System and Government of Zimbabwe. 1992. "Towards the Development of a Methodology for Food Aid Targeting in Zimbabwe." Harare: Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food Supply Situation and Crop Prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rome: FAO/GIEWS. [We examined all issues for 1991 and 1992].

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Food Programme. 1992. "Drought Devastation of Crops Threatens Food Supplies in Southern Africa." Special Alert No. 227. Summary Report of FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions to Drought-Affected Countries in Southern Africa. Rome.

Frankenberger, Timothy. 1993. "Household Food Security in Zimbabwe: An Issues Paper," International Fund for Agricultural Development, African Division, Project Management Department. Rome.

Frankenberger, Timothy. 1993. "Promoting Livelihood Security in Areas Prone to Recurrent Droughts and Desertification: Proactive Response Planning for Enhancing Household Drought Resilience." Rome: The International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Glantz, Michael H. 1994. "Creeping Environmental Phenomena: Are Societies Equipped to Deal with Them?" Creeping Enviornmental Phenomenon and Societal Responses to Them. Proceedings of a Workshop held 7-9 February 1994 in Boulder, Colorado. Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.

Glantz, Michael H. 1994. "Drought, Desertification, and Food Production" in M.H. Glantz (ed.) Drought Follows the Plow. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Glantz, Michael H. 1987. "Drought and Economic Development in Sub-saharan Africa" in M. Glantz (ed.) Drought and Hunger in Africa: Denying Famine a Future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gommes, R. 1996. "Rainfall Variability and Drought in sub-Saharan Africa" http://www.fao.org. 10 May.

Grain Marketing Board [Zimbabwe]. Annual Report. Harare: Zimbabwe. [We obtained reports for 1990-1993].

Green, Reginald. 1992. "Southern Africa: That the People May be Fed". Food Policy: 455-464.

Green, R., R. Morgan and C. Davids. 1992. Signs of Hope: The Children of Southern Africa. New York: UNICEF.

Hulme, M. (ed.) 1996. Climate Change and Southern Africa: An Exploration of Some Potential Impacts and Implications in the SADC Region. Norwich, UK: Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia.

Interim Report of the South African Drought Investigation Commission. 1992. Reprinted in M.H. Glantz (ed.) Desertification: Environmental Degradation in and around Arid Lands. 1977. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

International Fund for Agricultural Development and World Food Programme. 1993. "IFAD/WPF Identification Mission on Improving Food Security: Aide Memoire." Rome.

International Development Centre. 1993. fsgReview. No. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jayne, T.S. and M. Chisvo. 1991. "Unravelling Zimbabwe's food insecurity paradox." Food Policy: 319-329.

Jayne, T.S., L. Rubey, D.T. Schirley, M. Mukumbu, M. Chisvo, A. Santos, M. Weber and P. Diskin. 1995. "Effects of Market Reform on Access to Food by Low-income Households: Evidence from Four Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa." International Development Paper No. 19. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.

Jayne, T.S. and M. Rukuni. 1994. "Managing the Food Economy in the 1990s" in M. Rukuni and C. Eicher (eds.) Zimbabwe's Agricultural Revolution. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Press.

Jayne, T.S., M. Rukuni, M. Hajek, G. Sithole and G. Mudimu. 1991. "Structural Adjustment and Food Security in Zimbabwe" in J. Wyckoff and M. Rukuni (eds.) Toward an Integrated National Food Policy Strategy: Proceedings of the Second National Consultative Workshop. Harare: University of Zimbabwe.

Laishley, Roy. 1992. "Drought Dampens Africa's Economic Prospects." AfricaNews. (August 17-30): 3.

"Malawi." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: 38898.

Magalhaeas, A.R. and M.H. Glantz (eds.). 1992. Socioeconomic Impacts of Climate Variations and Policy Responses in Brazil. Brasilia: Fondacao Grupo Esquel Brasil.

Maxwell, Simon. 1992. "Food Security in Africa: Priorities for Reducing Hunger." Africa Recovery Briefing Paper. No. 6. New York: United Nations Department of Public Information.

Maxwell, Simon. 1994. "Understanding and managing food shocks" in Food Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: a new agenda for research and donor assistance. Chatham, England: Natural Resources Institute.

Meldrum, Andrew. 1993. "A Model for Cooperation." Africa Report. (November/December): 26-30.

"Mozambique." 1993. Keesing's Record of World Events. 39: R16-R17.

"Mozambique." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: R17.

Msuka, Louis. 1992. "Survival Strategy for Malawi." Refugees. (July): 16.

"Namibia." 1993. Keesing's Record of World Events. 39: R17.

National Farmers Association of Zimbabwe. 1992. "The Zimbabwean Viewpoint" in O. Obasanjo and H. d'Orville (eds.) The Challenges of Agricultural Production and Food Security in Africa. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

National Research Council, Board on Science and Technology for International Development. 1996. Lost Crops of Africa, Vol. I: Grains. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Ngobese, P. and B. Ogunseye (eds.). 1993. NGOs and Food Security in the SADC Region: Experiences in Normal Times and During Crisis. Harare: The Food Security Network of SADC NGOs.

Nyberg, Richard. 1992. "Famine Hits Zimbabwe Breadbasket." AfricaNews. August 17-30:3.

Nyberg, Richard. 1992. "Famine Hits Zimbabwe Breadbasket." AfricaNews. (August 17-30): 3

Palmer, Randall. 1992. "Hundreds of millions pledged for African drought." Reuter News Services. (June 1).

Reilly, G. 1992. "SA forced to honour foreign maize contracts." Business Day. (February 12).

Reuters Information Services. 1995. "World: Climate-famine's answer lies in oceans." (January 14).

Ridwan, A. and Pitkin, B. 1991. "Searching for Household Food Security in Africa." Finance & Development. (December): 3-6.

Rukuni, M., T.S. Jayne, J. Tagwireyi, and Rugube, L. 1990. "Alleviating Hunger in Zimbabwe: Toward a Food Security Strategy." World Bank Background Paper: Zimbabwe Agricultural Sector Memorandum. Washington, DC.

SADC Regional Early Warning Unit. Food Security, Quarterly Bulletin. Harare. [We reviewed all bulletins for 1991 and 1992].

SADCC Regaional Early Warning Unit. 1992. Food Security, Special Update. 9 March. Harare.

Shapouri, Shahla, Margaret Missiaen and Stacey Rosen. 1992. "Strategies for Food Security and Structural Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa." Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 651. Washington DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Southern African Development Coordination Conference. 1989. "Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources."

"Southern Africa: Famine fears." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: 38755.

Stanning, J.L. nd. "Policy Implications of Household Grain Marketing and Storage Decisions in Zimbabwe" in Southern Africa: Food Security Policy Options.

Thornycroft, P. 1992. "The man-make drought." The Star [South Africa]. (December): 47.

U.S. House of Representatives. 1992. "Southern Africa's Drought: Can Disaster be Derailed?" Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger and the House Foreign Affairs Committee Subcommittee on Africa, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

USAID. 1992. "El Niño Influence?" FEWS Bulletin. n. 1/92.

USAID. 1990. "Briefing: Food Security in Africa Project--SADCC." December..

von Braun, Joachim and Leonardo Paulino. "Food in sub-Saharan Africa: Trends and policy challenges for the 1990s." Food Policy. (December): 505-517.

World Food Programme. 1992. News Release: Drought in Southern Africa-Update. 25 February. Harare.

World Food Programme. 1993. Annual Report. Rome.

World Bank. 1991. "Food Security and Disasters in Africa: A Framework for Action." Food Security Unit, Africa Technical Department, Poverty and Social Policy Division. Washington, DC.

Zambia Early Warning Unit. 1992. Food Security Bulletin: 1992. Lusaka: Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. Zambia Early Warning Unit. Planning Division. [We reviewed all issues for 1992].

6. IMF/ Structural Adjustment--Southern Africa

Bowen, M. 1992. "Beyond Reform: Adjustment and Political Power in Contemporary Mozambique." The Journal of Modern African Studies. 30: 255-279.

Davies, R. 1988. "Market Liberation in Zimbabwe: The case of subsidies, 1980-1987" in M. Rukuni and R. Bernstein (eds.) Southern Africa: Food Security Policy Options. Harare: University of Zimbabwe/Michigan State University Food Security Project.

"Drought and Southern Africa." 1994. Drought Network News. 6(4): 7-9.Hillary. 1994. "The World Bank." WorldWatch (July/Aug).

Geisler, G. 1992. "Who is Losing Out? Structural Adjustment, Gender, and the Agricultural Sector in Zambia." The Journal of Modern African Studies. 30: 113-139.

Gibbon, P. 1992. "The World Bank and African Poverty, 1973-91." The Journal of Modern African Studies. 30: 193-220.

Green, Reginald H. nd. "Sound the Tocsin: the third horseman mounts to ride--drought in Southern Africa 1991-1993."

Green, Reginald H. 1992. "Debt, Drought, Death and Deferral." A note for FONAD. Falmer, UK.

Herbst, J. 1990. State Politics in Zimbabwe. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

International Monetary Fund. 1995. International Financial Statistics. Various Months. New York.

International Monetary Fund. 1994. International Financial Statistics Yearbook. New York.

International Monetary Fund. 1994. 1993 Annual Report. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

International Monetary Fund. 1993. "The Financing Role of the IMF." Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1993. 1992 Annual Report. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund.

International Monetary Fund. 1993. Press Release 93/32, August 2. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1992. Press Release 92/87, December 3. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1992. Press Release 92/53, July 1. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1992. Press Release 92/50, June 10. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1991. Press Release 91/56, October 1. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1991. Press Release 90/26, June 4. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1991. Press Release 91/36, July 29. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1991. Press Release 91/25, May 22. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1991. Press Release 91/52, September 20. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

International Monetary Fund. 1990. Press Release 90/7, February 16. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, External Relations Department.

Lancaster, C. 1991. "Economic Reform in Africa: Is It Working?" in O. Obasanjo and H. d'Orville (eds.) The Leadership Challenge of Economic Reforms in Africa. New York: Crane Russak.

Logan, I. and K. Mengisteab. 1993. "IMF-World Bank Adjustment and Structural Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa." Economic Geography.69: 1-24.

"Malawi." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: R15.

"Malawi." 1991. Keesing's Record of World Events. 37: 38044.

Masanzu, F. 1992. "Economic Reform Programs and Drought Effects in Southern Africa Region with Special Reference to Zimbabwe." Presentation at USAID/Africa Bureau Agricultural Development Office Conference, July 13.

"Mozambique: Public expenditure cuts." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: 38851.

"Mozambique." Keesing's Record of World Events. 37: 38044-38045.

National Farmers Association of Zimbabwe. 1992. "The Zimbabwean Viewpoint" in O. Obasanjo and H. d'Orville (eds). The challenges of agricultural food production and food security in Africa. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Nsouli, S. 1993. "Structural Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa." Finance & Development. (September): 20-23.

Onimode, B. 1989. "IMF and World Bank Programmes in Africa" in B. Onimode (ed.) The IMF, World Bank, and the African Debt. London: Zed Books.

Osunade, F.L. 1993. IMF Support for African Adjustment Programs: Questions and Answers. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Osunade, F.L. and Gleason, P. 1992. IMF Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Othman, H. and E. Maganya. 1989. "Tanzania: the pitfalls of the structural adjustment program" in B. Onimade (ed.) The IMF, the World Bank, and the African Debt. London: Zed Books.

Pearce, R. 1991. "Urban food subsidies in the context of adjustment: The case of Zambia." Food Policy. (December): 436-450.

Pinckney, T. 1993. "Is market liberalization compatible with food security?--Storage, trade and price policies for maize in Southern Africa." Food Policy. (August): 325-333.

Riddel, R. 1990. Manufacturing Africa. Heinemann, ODI.

Sachikonye, L.M. 1992. "Zimbabwe: Drought, Food, and Adjustment" Review of African Political Economy. n. 53: 88-94.

Sahn, D.E. 1992. "Implications of structural adjustment for household food security in Africa." Food, Nutrition and Agriculture.2: 18-24.

Shawa, J. 1993. "Trade, price and market reform in Zambia--Current status and constraints." Food Policy. (August): 294-299.

Shreeve, G. 1991. "Zimbabwe: A time for cool heads." The Banker. (21 September): 21-25.

Sibanda, A. 1989. "IMF-World Bank Impact on Zimbabwe" in B. Onimade (ed.) The IMF, the World Bank and the African Debt. London: Zed Books.

Skalnes, T. 1993. "The State, Interest Groups and Structural Adjustment in Zimbabwe." Journal of Development Studies. 29: 401-428.

Stanning, J.L. 1988. "Policy Implications of Household Grain Marketing and Storage Decisions in Zimbabwe" in M. Rukuni and R. Bernstein (eds.) Southern Africa: Food Security Policy Options. Harare: University of Zimbabwe/Michigan State University Food Security Project.

Stoneman, Colin. 1992. "The World Bank Demands its Pound of Zimbabwe's Flesh." Review of African Political Economy. n. 53: 94-96.

Takavarasha, T. 1988. "Grain Trade, Barter, and Changing Trade: Professional Research and Policy Issues with Reference to Zimbabwe's Experience" in M. Rukuni and R. Bernstein (eds.) Southern Africa: Food Security Policy Options. Harare: University of Zimbabwe/Michigan State University Food Security Project.

Takavarasha, T. 1993. "Trade, price and market reform in Zimbabwe: Current status, proposals, and constraints." Food Policy. (August): 286-293.

"Tanzania." 1991. Keesing's Record of World Events. 37: 38057.

Tickner, V. 1992. "Structural Adjustment and Agricultural Pricing in Mozambique." Review of African Political Economy. n. 53: 25-42.

Van de Walle, N. 1994. "Political Liberation and Economic Policy Reform in Africa." World Development. 22: 483-500.

World Bank. 1991. "Zimbabwe Agriculture Sector Memorandum. Vol I: Executive Report." Washington, DC: World Bank, Southern Africa Department, Agricultural Operations Division.

"Zambia." 1993. Keesing's Record of World Events. 39: R26.

"Zambia." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: 38994-38995.

"Zambia." 1991. Keesing's Record of World Events. 37: 38423.

"Zambia." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: R25.

"Zimbabwe: IMF Adjustment Programme." 1991. African Recorder. (July 2-15): 8422-8423.

"Zimbabwe: Support for Economic Restructuring." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: 38751.

"Zimbabwe: IMF Backs Market Reform." 1991. African Recorder. (April 9-22): 8360-8361.

"Zimbabwe." 1993. Keesing's Record of World Events. 39: R26.

"Zimbabwe." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: R25-R26.

"Zimbabwe--Falling wages and rising unemployment: the negative side of structural adjustment." 1993. International Labour Review. 132: 567-571.

7. SADC

NOTE: The SADC (Southern African Development Community) was formed in August 1992. Its predecessor was the SADCC (Southern African Development Coordination Conference), which was formed in 1980. The organizational structures are similar, although their ultimate goals are not. The SADCC was formed to eliminate dependence on South Africa among its members. The SADC is more focused on promoting regional economic and political cooperation and is prepared to accept the new South Africa as a member.

Abegunrin, O. 1990. Economic Dependence and Regional Cooperation in Southern Africa: SADCC and South Africa in Confrontation. Studies in African Economic and Social Development, Vol. 2. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.

"African Regional Organizations: Southern Africa." 1993. Keesing's Record of World Events. 39: R27.

"African Regional Organizations: Southern Africa." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: R26.

"African Regional Organizations: Southern Africa." 1991. Keesing's Record of World Events. 37: 38059.

de la Torres, A. and M. Kelly. 1992. "Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)." Regional Trade Arrangements. Occasional Paper 93. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Leistner, G. 1981. "Southern Africa: prospects for prosperity." Africa Insight. 11: 122-127.

Morna, C. 1990. "SADCC's First Decade." Africa Report. (May/June): 49-52.

"PTA: 11th Summit." 1993. Keesing's Record of World Events. 39: 39260.

"SADCC: Arusha Summit." 1991. Keesing`s Record of World Events.37: 38380.

"SADCC: Summit--Transformation into SADC." Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: 39042.

"Southern Africa: Moves to relieve famine." 1992. Keesing's Record of World Events. 38: 38855.

"Southern African Development Community: Summit Meeting." 1993. Keesing's Record of World Events. 39: 39628- 39629.

Thompson, C. 1985. Challenge to Imperialism: The Frontline States in the Liberation of Zimbabwe. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

U.S. Department of State. 1987. "Southern African Development Coordination Conference." Gist. (November). Washington, DC: Bureau of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of State.



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