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Workshop Agenda- Draft of 04/12/05

When: Breakout Sessions (with example questions)
Monday, 18 April Session 1
Tuesday, 19 April Session 2 Session 3
Wednesday, 20 April Session 4
Monday, 18 April
7:30-8:15 Breakfast
8:15-9:00 Introduction (Meeting Logistics - Meeting Objectives - Comments by Program Managers)
9:00-12:30 Plenary Talks
Each speaker will be asked to identify and describe what the important gaps are in our current understanding and why we need to better understand such issues/questions. The plenary talks will be limited to overviews, but all participants are encouraged to present posters of their work relevant to this meeting.
Background, Importance of Issue and Identification of Major Gaps in Our Knowledge
9:00-9:40 Carbonate system dynamics of the open ocean and neritic environments (FEELY/MACKENZIE)
9:40-10:10 CO2 chemistry effects on benthic calcifying communities and their role in the global carbon cycle (LANGDON)
10:10-10:40 CO2 chemistry effects on planktonic calcifiers, communities and their role in the global carbon cycle (ROST)
Existing and Emerging Technology
11:00-11:30 Existing technology and challenges for monitoring the CO2 system in seawater (SABINE)
11:30-12:00 Methods for measuring calcification rates in different systems? (GATTUSO)
12:00-12:30 NOAA monitoring activities relevant to the CO2 issue (HENDEE/BRAINARD)
12:30-1:30 Lunch
1:30-2:00 Pressing Questions and Research Needs
Short presentation followed by open discussion of:
1. Most pressing hypotheses or questions
2. General ideas about how to test these hypotheses/questions
2:00-5:00 Breakout Session #1 (with coffee break)
Tuesday, 19 April
7:30-8:30 Breakfast
8:30-9:00 Plenary – Summary of Breakout Session #1 (Atkinson, Spero),
Feedback, Updates
9:00-12:00 Breakout Session #2 (with coffee break)
12:00-1:00 Lunch
Plenary - Summary of Breakout Session #2 (Hallock, Balch)
1:30-5:00 Breakout Session #3 (with coffee break)
Wednesday, 20 April
7:30-8:30 Breakfast
8:30-9:00 Plenary - Summary of Session #3 (Gattuso)
9:00-10:30 Breakout Session #4
10:30-11:00 Break
11:00-12:00 Summary of Session #4 (Mackenzie)
Mid-day wrap up
(most attendees adjourn)
12:00-1:00 Box Lunches
2:00-5:00 Report write-up session; including organizers, session chairs, rapporteurs and involved students
Breakout Sessions

Session 1: Ecophysiological Responses of Calcifiers to Increased pCO2: Current Knowledge and Pressing Questions

Two subgroups:

A. Benthic Calcifying Organisms
Chair: Marlin Atkinson
Rapporteur: Kim Yates

B. Planktonic Calcifying Organisms
Chair: Howie Spero
: Jelle Bijma

  • Controls on calcification (only briefly cover this if necessary)
    • What is the evidence that CO2 chemistry controls calcification in the natural environment?
    • Is calcification response to CO3 2– linear, or asymptotic (i.e., is there a threshold response)?
    • What are the relative roles of HCO3 – and CO3 2– in the calcification process?
    • What is the relationship between photosynthesis and calcification?
    • What is the impact of temperature on calcification?
  • Do we need more experimental data from more species, or from more groups of calcifiers to better predict the response of ecosystems to predicted changes is CO2 ?
  • Can we expect calcifiers to adapt to rising pCO2 and if so, by what mechanisms? over what time scales ?
  • Technological considerations
    • What are the technological capabilities and challenges for CO2 system measurements and calcification measurements?
    • What questions are best addressed in field studies, lab studies, or mesocosms?
    • What questions can be addressed through modeling? What important ecophysiological parameters are not currently included in models because of lack of data?
  • Standardization of measurements
    • What are advantages/disadvantages of existing research designs, sampling, manipulation of CO2 chemistry, etc?
    • Can we recommend “standards” within this arena?
    • How can different measures of calcification be related/standardized?

Session 2: Ecosystem Responses to Elevated pCO2 : Existing and Future Field Monitoring and Experimental Research

Two subgroups:

A: Neritic Ecosystem Response
: Pamela Hallock
: Alexandra Amat

B: Pelagic Ecosystem Response
: Barney Balch
: Chris Sabine

  • Ecological responses:
    • Will calcifying organisms be outcompeted by noncalcifiers? If so, what impacts to ecosystem structure and function would occur?
    • What changes, if any, may occur in food webs and other species interactions?
    • How could such ecological responses affect the cycling of organic and inorganic C?
  • Regional considerations:
    • What information can be obtained by conducting studies in regions with natural variability in pCO2?
    • What regions would be most promising in terms of better characterizing CO2 -chemistry environment?
    • Which regions do models indicate will likely experience the greatest changes in seawater carbonate chemistry? Over what time scales?

Session 3: Design of Experimental and Monitoring Systems

One Room

Chair: J-P Gattuso
: Chris Langdon

  • What experimental designs are needed to address the pressing questions?
  • What can be done now, with existing technology (both pelagic and neritic regions)?
  • What can be done within next 5-10 years, with emerging technology?
  • What are the coastal needs/concerns, versus those of open ocean (e.g., precision, contamination, etc.)?
  • Can we capitalize on existing monitoring/research efforts to obtain more/better data? where? how?
  • How can we measure dissolution within the water column and within sediments? What is the potential role of dissolution in buffering the system?
  • How can remote sensing be integrated into the overall monitoring and experimental designs? Are there pressing needs to develop new remote sensing technology?

Session 4: Modeling Needs

One Room

Chair: Fred Mackenzie
: Jim Orr

  • What are the priorities in modeling the CO2-calcification questions? (carbon cycle? ecosystem/community interactions? physiological modeling? sediment/water interactions? etc.)
  • What important questions can be addressed with existing models?  Which will require model development?
  • Which modeling questions would be well constrained versus poorly constrained by existing data?
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Workshop Support
Support for this workshop was provided by the National Science Foundation (GEO-OCE - Biological Oceanography and Chemical Oceanography), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and National Undersea Research Program), the U.S. Geological Survey (Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies), and the Institute for the Study of Society and Environment (ISSE). ISSE is part of the National Center for Atmospheric Research , which is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.