Appendix: Potential Extreme Events Research Topics Proposed at the Workshop
- What are the changes in or interactions among the physical, social, and constructed systems that are reshaping each nation's hazardous future?
- What have the been the losses from past disasters? How do past losses compare to current or future scenarios?
- What are the criteria we use to evaluate disaster resiliency, environmental quality, intra- and intergenerational equity, quality of life, and economic vitality? How do we apply these criteria to the plans and programs of local/state/federal government and the public and nonprofit sectors that are designed to deal with extreme events?
- How successful are hazard mitigation programs?
- What are the benefits of catastrophes or risk-taking behavior?
- How can we frame interdisciplinary research questions?
- How are extreme events different in open vs. closed systems?
- How can we measure the quality of decisions?
- How is scientific information (including uncertainty) used in decision-making?
- How can we construct policies that yield good decisions when used in decision-making?
- What is the need for integrated research observations and information systems?
- What strategies are needed for effective communication to achieve desired outcomes?
- What are the interactions between war, social and economic collapse, and extreme events?
- What are the interactions between internet-related extreme events and other extreme events?
- Fund scientific placement in practical settings.
- What are the equity effects of extreme events and extreme event policy?
- What contextual factors contribute to framing, defining, and constructing extreme events?
- What are the empirical consequences of actual predictions of extreme events?
- How well do the "institutions of disaster" function?
- What are the effects of extreme events on communities and civil society?
- Who has the responsibility, liability with respect to extreme events? What does the distribution of risk look like? Who has the political authority?
- How is extreme events-related knowledge diffused? What characteristics make it usable?
- Why do people remain vulnerable to extreme events?
- What makes complex, "mixed" systems resilient?
- What are cost-effective and dependable means of protecting computational infrastructure without substantially decreasing its usability and its tremendous potential for economic progress?
- What would be an effective information security policy?
- What are the critical informational assets and vulnerable are they?
- How do relationships between scientists and public officials affect reactions to extreme events?
- How can we include human-related activities in long-term ecological research (LTERs)?
- How can we frame information about extreme events for laypersons?
- Strengthen social science research on communication among participant groups (intersubjectivity).
- Systematically study and define extreme events, modes of measurement, and preventability.
- Define, understand, model, and communicate risk vulnerability.
- How do we manage risk and risk aversion? How do we manage perception?
- What are the short- and long-term impacts of extreme events?
- What are the root causes of more armed conflicts?
- Is there a disconnect between producers and consumers of knowledge, and, if so, why?
- What are the limits and possibilities of planning, prediction, and control of extreme events?
- What is the value of folk knowledge?
- What are people's perceptions in low-probability events?
- Assess impacts of extreme events.
- Assess assets of extreme events.
- Assess vulnerabilities of extreme events.
- What are the empirical effects of prediction?
- What are the effects of overselling of predictions?
- Investigate the limits of simplification?
- Who wins and loses in disasters?
- Investigate the impact of mitigation.
- Identify high-leverage interventions.
- Identify and understand instabilities.
- Investigate decision heuristics.
- Do classical science techniques explore extreme events?
- What are the secondary impacts, ie, emotional health of extreme events?
- What are the policy incentives/disincentives to mitigate extreme events?
- Is human activity (development) increasing potential impact of extreme events?
- Is there a trade-off between sustainability and tolerable level of risk?
- What is the impact of high levels of consumption on extreme events?
- What is the appropriate use of models (accuracy, precision, validation–only 1/3 of the problem)?
- Are extreme events large versions of small events?
- How are large scale events perceived differently than widespread/frequent smaller events?
- How does the perception of an extreme event differ from reality?
- What is the role of experience unmediated by science?
- How do we handle the convergence of events/places/vulnerabilities?
- How do we effectively build capacity to mitigate extreme events?
- Find common terminology for defining extreme events.
- How do we quantify the costs of extreme events?
- Failures are splendid opportunities for learning; under what circumstances can we learn from extreme events?
- What are the different types of extreme events and their frequencies and costs?
- Find new ways of communicating more effective ways of addressing extreme events.
- What are differences between natural and human-made extreme events?
- How do we characterize the timing of extreme events (episodic vs. chronic)?
- How do values impact extreme events?
- How should resources be allocated (prevention, mitigation)?
- Explore credibility/legitimation issues ("cry wolf," exaggerated claims)
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