V. Sub-Arctic and Arctic

Sparse population (many dependent on natural systems); winter ice cover important feature of hydological cycle:

  • Thinner ice cover, 1- to 3-month increase in ice-free season, increased extent of open water
  • Increased lake-level variability, possible complete drying of some delta lakes
  • Changes in aquatic ecology and species distribution as a result of warming temperatures and longer growing season

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